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Lime and gypsum in the form of plaster of Paris are used particularly in the repair and repointing of buildings and structures because it is important the repair materials are similar to the original materials.The type and ratio of the repair mortar is determined by a mortar analysis.This mortar was not as strong as pozzolanic mortar, but, because it was denser, it better resisted penetration by water.Hydraulic mortar was not available in ancient China, possibly due to a lack of volcanic ash.

These premixed mortar products are designated by one of the five letters, M, S, N, O, and K.In the United States and other countries, five standard types of mortar (available as dry pre-mixed products) are generally used for both new construction and repair.Strengths of mortar change based on the ratio of cement, lime, and sand used in mortar.Polymer cement mortars (PCM) are the materials which are made by partially replacing the cement hydrate binders of conventional cement mortar with polymers.The polymeric admixtures include latexes or emulsions, redispersible polymer powders, water-soluble polymers, liquid thermoset resins and monomers.There are several types of cement mortars and additives. Because of a lack of stone and an abundance of clay, Babylonian constructions were of baked brick, using lime or pitch for mortar.

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